History of Language
The beginnings of language itself stretch so far back in time and into the First Realm that it's generally seen to be a fruitless pursuit trying to understand it. All that is known, or believed rather, is that there once existed a language known by modern scholars as Primordial. It is viewed as theoretical and usually as mythical. Supposedly it is the origin of, if not all language, all language on Khaltotuin and is said to contain a certain mystical power to it, so that just by speaking certain words one might do anything from kill someone to conjure water into existence.
In total only a few references to this language survive, and all come from Imen-Alïsh. The first solid evidence for any language is that of Proto-Daeghral, the language spoken by the Ancestors and early Daeghra. Attempts have recently been made to trace all known languages back to their root in Proto-Daeghral and reconstruct it resulting in the language of Reconstructionalist Daeghral which is spoken by only a few, and never as a first language and is mostly theoretical.
The Tripartite Schism
Early on, either as or even before the Daeghra began to go their separate ways evolutionarily thus creating the various gens, their language began to do the same splitting into three families, the Stalish, Tsighik, and Ulthwan families.
Of all the major language families, perhaps the Tsighik branch has undergone the least change over time. The first attested to or hinted at Tsighik tongue is now called Minor Tsighik, which later on evolved into Major Tsighik.
At that point it began to split off. One branch of it became Zu'Khargïtï, which then became (after some heavy influence from Khaltsh) Ghi-Ha, the tongue spoken today by many Khargïts.
The first known Ulthwan language was Ancient Ulthwan which was not much different from Proto-Daeghral, but quickly evolved along with Ulthwan society into High Ulthwan. This then separated into four branches.
High Ulthwan became what is now known as Poetic Ultherimin which in turn evolved into Modern Ultherimin, still spoken by Ultherimi today, and which had a fairly large influence on modern Khaltsh (which in turn influenced Ghi-Ha).
Meanwhile a dialect of High Ulthwan became Low Ulthwan which then became Chargish, the language of, of course, the Charg.
Among the burdgeoning Ulthashki, their dialect of High Ulthwan became what is now known as Degenerate Ulthashkin, a vulgar and deplorable bastardization of High Ulthwan, but which experienced a renaissance of sorts and became New Ulthashkin. Then when the Ulthashki became more and more isolationist, this became what is known as the Cant, the language spoken by most Ulthashki today and is incredibly difficult to learn due to its ever changing, variable, loose, and slang-laden nature.
Finally among the Ulthadi, High Ulthwan became Ancestral Ulthadin which then evolved into Reformationalist Ulthadin. In modern times this has split into two more branches, the Hearth Tongue which is spoken at home and among close associates, and the Market Tongue, which is spoken in public.
Of all the language families, that of the Stal is by far the most varied and complex, reflecting that family of gens quite well. Following Proto-Daeghral, the first language among the Stal was Early Stalish which almost immediately broke apart into three more languages.
Old Trusken was spoken by the Truskens for an incredibly long time with little variation, but was eventually simplified into Younger Trusken which combined with Neo-Meratish to form Stalark, the direct ancestor of Khaltsh (after some influence by Modern Ultherimin).
Alongside Old Trusken existed Pre-Meran, but only for a short time before it too split apart.
Following Pre-Meran cam Imperial Meratish and its offshoot Didactic Meratish. Imperial Meratish then became Neo-Meratish, which, again, combined with Younger Trusken to form Stalark.
Pre-Meran also evolved into Vulgar Uirishk which then became what is now known as Magistrate's Uirishk. Strangely enough there is then a large gap known as the Teleu Gap where no Uiren tongue is attested to at all until suddenly Reformed Uirishk, the modern tongue of the Uiren appears on the scene.
Of the same generation as Old Trusken and Pre-Meran was Tulsï, spoken by the island dwelling ancestors of the Tuldhars. Upon coming to the mainland it then broke up, as did the people, into two distinct groups. One of these languages is named for the people who spoke, and still speak it today, Tchykku. The other is Kahabaran, which finally became Tuldhari, the language spoken by most Tuldhars in present times.